Suggested extra curriculum reading

This collection of links does not have any specific order. Read, watch, think and enjoy ! Note that you are not required to read documents linked from this page, but you are welcome to do this for the sake of fun. Perhaps, you will be able to find some ideas that you will wish to explore in the future.


What is Artificial Intelligence (HTML version), John McCarthy, Stanford University. An important introductory paper for undergraduate students. This Web page has links to other versions of John McCarthy's paper.
If the above link is not operational, then you can read
(Local Copy of the March 29, 2003 version):   "ps" - PostScript and "pdf" - Acrobat Reader formats.
(Local Copy of the November 12, 2007 version):  
Part 1: Basic Questions   Part 2: Branches of AI   Part 3: Applications   Part 4: More Questions   Part 5: Bibliography  
 

Gary Marcus: Why can't my computer understand me? (August 16, 2013). This article was published in the New Yorker magazine to celebrate the talk presented by Professor Hector Levesque on occasion of the Research Excellence Award that he received in August 2013 at the premier international conference on artificial intelligence.
 

The Turing Test: Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing, published in "Mind", vol. LIX, N 236, pages 433-460, October, 1950. Because of the advancement in software agents technologies, nowdays this test has commercial applications discussed in this New York Times article (NY Times, December 10, 2002) and in several other articles. The recent CAPTCHA project has a goal of developing electronic tests that can tell humans and computers apart.
 

Patrick Hayes and Kenneth Ford
Turing Test Considered Harmful. This paper was published in the proceedings of the International Joint Conference on AI (IJCAI-1995), Montreal Canada, August 20-25, 1995.
 

Building Watson (a computer that won in Jeopardy competition over human champions): "An overview of the DeepQA project" by David Ferrucci, Eric Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James Fan, David Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam Lally, J. William Murdock, Eric Nyberg, John Prager, Nico Schlaefer, Chris Welty from IBM Research. Published in "AI Magazine", vol 31, N3, 2010, pp. 59-79. A related Watson's Jeopardy! Challenge Web site at IBM Research.
 

Prakash M Nadkarni, Lucila Ohno-Machado, and Wendy W Chapman. Natural language processing: an introduction. This paper includes a discussion of IBM "Watson" technology. Published in: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2011, volume 18, issue 5; Sep-Oct 2011, pages 544-551.
 

For those of you who want to learn more about games. You can read about General Game Playing Project and also about Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment.
 

Knowledge-based model of mind and its contribution to sciences. An Interview with Ed Feigenbaum, a professor from Stanford University. Published in ``Communications of the ACM'', Vol. 53 No. 6, Pages 41-45. DOI 10.1145/1743546.1743564 (Full text PDF)
 

Where is AI Heading? "Eye on the Prize" by Nils Nilsson, Stanford University. Published in "AI Magazine", vol 16, N2, 1995, pp. 9-17.
 

How do you teach a computer common sense? Researchers at a company called Cycorp in Austin, Texas, are trying to find out. Since 1984, they have been incorporating a huge collection of everyday knowledge in an AI project named Cyc. The Cyc project aims to develop a comprehensive common sense knowledge base, and associated reasoning systems. They are now being used to enable the development of knowledge-intensive applications for industry and government.
 

Why people think computers can't, written by Marvin Minsky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published in "AI Magazine", vol. 3, N4, Fall 1982, p. 3-15.
 

SHRDLU, a program for understanding natural language, written by Terry Winograd at the M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in 1968-70. SHRDLU carried on a simple dialog with a user, about a small world of objects (the BLOCKS world). Terry Winograd is professor of computer science at Stanford University. SHRDLU resurrection: this Web site collects information about subsequent versions and updates.
 

Thinking machines: Can there be? Are we?, Terry Winograd, Stanford University.
 

Programs with Common Sense, John McCarthy, Stanford University.
 

How Intelligent is Deep Blue?, by Drew McDermott, Yale University.
[This is the original, long version of an article that appeared in the May 14, 1997 New York Times with more flamboyant title.]
If the link above fails, download a local copy.
 

A Gamut of Games. This article reviews the past successes, current projects, and future research directions for AI using computer games as a research test bed. Written by Jonathan Schaeffer, University of Alberta, Canada. Published in ``AI Magazine'', volume 22, number 3, pp. 29-46, 2001.
 

Allen Newell: The Scientific Relevance of Robotics. Remarks at the Dedication of the CMU Robotics Institute. Published in the AI Magazine, Vol 2, No 1, Spring 1981.
 

When Robots Meet People: Research Directions In Mobile Robotics written by Sebastian Thrun, Stanford University. He is a head of the team that built Stanley, the robotic car. Stanley was judged to be the "Best Robot Of All Time" by Wired Magazine, and NOVA shot a great documentary about Stanley and the race, which is available online
 

Natural Born Robots, Scientific American Frontiers.
 

Robots, Re-Evolving Mind written by Hans Moravec, Carnegie Mellon University. He also provides a photo of Shakey, the robot.
 

A chat about the future of AI with James Handler, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. (Previously, he has worked at University of Maryland.)
 

The next generation of WWW can benefit from the AI-inspired technologies: ``Semantic Web Services" by McIlraith, S., Son, T.C. and Zeng, H. Published in IEEE Intelligent Systems, Special Issue on the Semantic Web, 16(2):46--53, March/April, 2001 (Copyright IEEE, 2001). This paper is available from Sheila McIlraith web page in Stanford University. Additional information about Web Services Activity is provided by Semantic Web Services Interest Group.
 

Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the WWW, thinks about evolution of the Web in the 21st century. Here is Tim Berners-Lee's Semantic Web Road-map, written in September 1998. The additional information: Scientific American: The Semantic Web (a new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers). This paper has been published in Scientific American (May, 2001). The paper is written by Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila. The Future of the Web: Tim Berners-Lee's Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Committee (on 2007-03-01).
 

"A logical framework for depiction and image interpretation", R. Reiter (Univ. of Toronto), and A. Mackworth (Univ. of British Columbia). Published in: Artificial Intelligence, vol 41, N 2, 1989, pp. 125-155.
 

Logical vs.Analogical or Symbolic vs. Connectionist or Neat vs. Scruffy, written by Marvin Minsky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published in "AI Magazine", vol 12, N 2, 1991, pp. 34-51.
 

Reasoning with Cause and Effect, a research excellence lecture by Judea Pearl, Univ. of California, Los Angeles.
 

From here to human-level AI, John McCarthy, Stanford University.
 

Christof Koch (Professor of Cognitive and Behavioral Biology, California Institute of Technology) The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach March 22, 2006, UC Berkeley Campus.
 

Pieces of mind, Scientific American Frontiers.
 

Computer programs as empirical models in cognitive psychology: Herbert Simon, the Psychology Department at Carnegie Mellon University. Human beings use symbolic processes to solve problems, reason, speak and write, learn and invent. Over the past 45 years, cognitive psychology has built and tested empirical models of these processes. The models take the form of computer programs that simulate human behavior.
 

What has AI in Common with Philosophy?, John McCarthy, Stanford University.
 

Mathematical Intuition vs. Mathematical Monsters, Synthese, 2000, p.317-332, written by Solomon Feferman, Stanford University. See also his paper The Logic of Mathematical. Discovery. Vs. the Logical. Structure of Mathematics reprinted as Chapter 3 in the book "In the Light of Logic". Author: Solomon Feferman. (Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-508030-0, Logic and Computation in Philosophy series).
 

" Where Mathematics Comes From", written by George Lakoff and Rafael Nunez, published by "Basic Books". Book review: "Where Mathematics Come From, Reviewed by James J. Madden, Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University.
 

Asimov, Isaac: "Robot Visions" and "Robot Dreams", there are several paperback editions.


cps721 (Artificial Intelligence).