What is Artificial Intelligence (HTML version),
John McCarthy, Stanford University.
An important introductory paper for undergraduate students.
This Web page has links to other versions of John McCarthy's paper.
If the above link is not operational, then you can read
(Local Copy of the March 29, 2003 version): "ps" - PostScript and "pdf" - Acrobat Reader formats.
(Local Copy of the November 12, 2007 version):
Part 1: Basic Questions Part 2: Branches of AI Part 3: Applications Part 4: More Questions Part 5: Bibliography
Gary Marcus (a professor of cognitive science at New York University, USA):
Why can't my computer understand me? (August 16, 2013).
This article was published in the New Yorker magazine to celebrate
the talk presented by Professor
Hector Levesque on occasion of the Research Excellence Award that
he received in August 2013 at the
premier international conference on artificial intelligence.
Winograd Schema Challenge: Can computers reason like humans?
Posted by Charles Ortiz on July 13, 2016 in What's Next? blog of
Nuance Communications Web site. Charlie Ortiz is the director of
the Laboratory for AI and Natural Language Processing at Nuance Communications
and one of the organizers of this competition. The paper about the
Winograd Schema Challenge, written by
Hector Levesque ,
Ernest Davis, and Leora Morgenstern,
was published in the proccedings of the 14th international conference on
Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Vienna, Austria, July 20-24, 2014.
The Turing Test:
Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing,
published in "Mind", vol. LIX, N 236, pages 433-460, October, 1950.
Because of the advancement in software agents technologies,
nowdays this test has commercial applications discussed in
this New York Times article (NY Times, December 10, 2002) and in
several other articles.
The recent CAPTCHA project has a goal
of developing electronic tests that can tell humans and computers apart.
Patrick Hayes and Kenneth Ford
Turing Test Considered Harmful. This paper was published in the proceedings of the International Joint Conference on AI (IJCAI-1995), Montreal Canada, August 20-25, 1995.
Kenneth M. Ford, Patrick J. Hayes, Clark Glymour, James Allen
(from the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, IHMC).
Cognitive Orthoses: Toward Human-Centered AI. Published in AI MAGAZINE, Winter 2015, Vol 36, No 4, pages 5-8.
Building Watson (a computer that won in Jeopardy competition over
"An overview of the DeepQA project" by
David Ferrucci, Eric Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James Fan, David
Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam Lally, J. William Murdock, Eric
Nyberg, John Prager, Nico Schlaefer, Chris Welty from IBM Research.
Published in "AI Magazine", vol 31, N3, 2010, pp. 59-79.
Watson's Jeopardy! Challenge Web site at IBM Research.
dicuss some of the technical issues
(linked from the IBM Research Web site).
Natural Language Processing With Prolog in the IBM Watson System written by
Adam Lally (IBM) and Paul Fodor (Stony Brook University) was published on March 31, 2011
PDF version of this article.
Prakash M Nadkarni, Lucila Ohno-Machado, and Wendy W Chapman.
Natural language processing: an introduction. This paper includes a
discussion of IBM "Watson" technology. Published in: Journal of the
American Medical Informatics Association, 2011, volume 18, issue 5;
Sep-Oct 2011, pages 544-551.
Tougher Turing Test Exposes Chatbots’ Stupidity.
We have a long way to go if we want virtual assistants to understand us.
Published in MIT Technology Review, July 14, 2016.
Gideon Lewis-Kraus wrote an article
The Great A.I. Awakening. This is an article about
recent improvements in Google Translate and the so-called
``neural networks" technology that helped to make translation better.
Published in the New York Times Magazine on December 14, 2016.
In a more recent article, also published in New York Times,
Gary Marcus claims that
Artificial Intelligence Is Stuck and then proposes
what needs to be done to move it forward (New York Times, July 29, 2017).
(Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of Toronto and Google)
received his Research Excellence Award at the IJCAI-2005.
This is the highest honor for research in artificial intelligence.
The very gentle after-dinner version of his lecture
``Can computer simulations of the brain allow us to see into the mind?"
is available as PPT slides, but you also need to download six .avi movies
to the same directory as the powerpoint file and with the same names as
they currently have:
Jürgen Schmidhuber published in June 2015 an online
Critique of Paper by "Deep Learning Conspiracy"
where he critically discussed an article "Deep learning" written by
Yann LeCun, Yoshua Bengio, and Geoffrey Hinton
(published in the journal Nature, v521, p436-444, on 28 May 2015).
Moreover, he published his own
deep learning overview that has been widely discussed and verified
by the machine learning community. His overview provides an unbiased
historical review of research that led to success of
deep learning in neural networks.
Some researchers believe deep-learning with its back-propagation still
has a core role in AI's future. But on September 15, 2017,
Professor Geoff Hinton said that, to push materially ahead,
entirely new methods will probably have to be invented. Hinton quoted
a great German physicist Max Planck who said that
Science advances one funeral at a time",
and then Hinton added
"The future depends on some graduate student who is deeply suspicious of everything I have said".
Gary Marcus (New York University) published a related paper:
Deep Learning: A Critical Appraisal,
arXiv1801.00631 (Submitted on 2 Jan 2018).
The following PC Magazine article written for general public discusses the reason why
Could Get Overhyped. Published on April 4, 2018.
John Launchbury, the Director of DARPA's Information Innovation Office (I2O), discusses the "three waves of AI" and the capabilities required for AI to reach its full potential. He outlines 3 waves in the AI research and explains -- what AI can do, what it can't do, and where it is headed. Published on Feb 15, 2017.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Announces $2 Billion Campaign to Develop Next Wave of AI Technologies, September 7, 2018. DARPA’s multi-year strategy seeks contextual reasoning in AI systems to create more trusting, collaborative partnerships between humans and machines.
Thomas Nield (email@example.com) published an article
Is Deep Learning Already Hitting its Limitations?
in the "Towards Data Science" blog on January 5, 2019,
with the sub-title "And Is Another AI Winter Coming?".
a professor from the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain)
General Solvers for General AI. Published on June 17, 2016.
For those of you who want to learn more about games.
You can read about
General Game Playing Project and also about
Artificial Intelligence and
1975 ACM Turing Award Lecture
"Computer science as empirical inquiry: symbols and search" by
Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon, Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA.
Published in Communications of the ACM, Volume 19 Issue 3, March 1976, Pages 113-126.
Provided by the
ACM Digital Library.
Knowledge-based model of mind and its contribution to sciences.
An Interview with Ed Feigenbaum, a professor from
Published in ``Communications of the ACM'', Vol. 53 No. 6, Pages 41-45.
What is a Systematic Method of Scientific Discovery? by
Herbert A. Simon, Carnegie Mellon University. Published in
Systematic Methods of Scientific Discovery:
Papers from the 1995 Spring Symposium, ed. Raul Valdes-Perez, pages 1-2.
Technical Report SS-95-03. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence,
Menlo Park, California.
Where is AI Heading?
"Eye on the Prize" by
Stanford University. Published in "AI Magazine", vol 16, N2, 1995, pp. 9-17.
How do you teach a computer common sense? Researchers at a company
called Cycorp in Austin, Texas, are trying to find out. Since 1984, they
have been incorporating a huge collection of everyday knowledge in an AI
The Cyc project aims to develop a comprehensive common sense knowledge base,
and associated reasoning systems. They are now being used to
enable the development of knowledge-intensive applications for industry
Why people think computers can't, written by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
"AI Magazine", vol. 3, N4, Fall 1982, p. 3-15.
SHRDLU, a program for understanding natural language, written by Terry
Winograd at the M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in 1968-70.
SHRDLU carried on a simple dialog with a user, about a small world of objects
(the BLOCKS world).
Terry Winograd is professor of computer science at
this Web site collects information about subsequent versions and updates.
Thinking machines: Can there be? Are we?, Terry Winograd, Stanford University.
Programs with Common Sense, John McCarthy, Stanford University.
How Intelligent is Deep Blue?, by Drew
McDermott, Yale University.
[This is the original, long version of an article that appeared in the May 14, 1997 New York Times with more flamboyant title.]
If the link above fails, download a local copy.
A Gamut of Games. This article reviews the past successes,
current projects, and future research directions for AI using computer games
as a research test bed. Written by
University of Alberta, Canada.
Published in ``AI Magazine'', volume 22, number 3, pp. 29-46, 2001.
The Scientific Relevance of Robotics. Remarks at the Dedication of
the CMU Robotics Institute.
Published in the AI Magazine, Vol 2, No 1, Spring 1981.
When Robots Meet People: Research Directions In Mobile Robotics
Sebastian Thrun, Stanford University. He is a head of the team that
built Stanley, the robotic car. Stanley was judged to be the "Best Robot
Of All Time" by Wired Magazine, and
NOVA shot a great
documentary about Stanley and the race, which is available online
Natural Born Robots,
Scientific American Frontiers.
Robots, Re-Evolving Mind written by
Carnegie Mellon University. He also provides a photo of
Shakey, the robot.
The next generation of WWW can benefit from the AI-inspired technologies:
``Semantic Web Services"
by McIlraith, S., Son, T.C. and Zeng, H. Published in IEEE Intelligent Systems, Special
Issue on the Semantic Web, 16(2):46--53, March/April, 2001 (Copyright IEEE, 2001).
This paper is available from
Sheila McIlraith web page in Stanford University. Additional
Web Services Activity is
provided by Semantic Web Services Interest Group.
Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the WWW, thinks about evolution of the Web in
the 21st century.
Here is Tim Berners-Lee's
Semantic Web Road-map,
written in September 1998.
The additional information:
American: The Semantic Web (a new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers).
This paper has been published in
Scientific American (May, 2001). The paper is written by
Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila.
The Future of the Web: Tim Berners-Lee's Testimony before the United
States House of Representatives Committee (on 2007-03-01).
Sir Tim Berners-Lee has received the 2016 ACM A.M. Turing Award for inventing the WWW. This is the highest honour awarded in computer science by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), a professional CS association. The article Weaving the Web explains the history of how the Web was invented.
"A logical framework for depiction and image interpretation",
R. Reiter (Univ. of Toronto), and A. Mackworth (Univ. of British Columbia).
Artificial Intelligence, vol 41, N 2, 1989, pp. 125-155.
Logical vs.Analogical or Symbolic vs. Connectionist or Neat vs. Scruffy, written by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published in
"AI Magazine", vol 12, N 2, 1991, pp. 34-51.
Reasoning with Cause and Effect,
a research excellence lecture by
Judea Pearl, Univ. of California,
Theoretical Impediments to Machine Learning
With Seven Sparks from the Causal Revolution, a note written by
professor from the University of California, Los Angeles.
TECHNICAL REPORT R-475, September 2017.
From here to human-level AI, John McCarthy, Stanford University.
Oliver Sacks (1933–2015) was a physician and the author of over ten books.
Speak, Memory published in the New York Review of Books, in the February 21, 2013 issue.
The Mental Life of Plants and Worms, Among Others, published in the New York Review of Books, in the April 24, 2014 issue.
In the River of Consciousness, published in the New York Review of Books, in the January 15, 2004 issue.
Christof Koch (Professor of Cognitive and Behavioral Biology,
California Institute of Technology)
The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach
March 22, 2006, UC Berkeley Campus.
Dr Alex Taylor sets a difficult problem solving task,
will the crow defeat the puzzle?
Are crows the ultimate problem solvers? -- Inside the Animal Mind: Episode 2.
BBC Two Programme website.
Pieces of mind,
Scientific American Frontiers.
Computer programs as empirical models in cognitive psychology:
Herbert Simon, the Psychology Department at Carnegie Mellon University.
Human beings use symbolic processes to solve problems,
reason, speak and write, learn and invent. Over the past 45 years,
cognitive psychology has built and tested empirical models of these processes.
The models take the form of computer programs that
simulate human behavior.
What has AI in Common with Philosophy?,
John McCarthy, Stanford University.
Mathematical Intuition vs. Mathematical Monsters,
Synthese, 2000, p.317-332, written by
Solomon Feferman, Stanford University. See also his paper
The Logic of Mathematical.
Discovery. Vs. the Logical. Structure of Mathematics reprinted as
Chapter 3 in the book "In the Light of Logic". Author: Solomon
Feferman. (Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-19-508030-0,
Logic and Computation in Philosophy series).
Where Mathematics Comes From", written by George Lakoff and Rafael Nunez,
published by "Basic Books".
Book review: "Where Mathematics Come From, Reviewed by
James J. Madden,
Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University. Professor
Ernest Davis published his review
Mathematics as Metaphor
in the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical AI, vol. 17, no. 3, 2005, pp. 305-315.
The robot and the baby, an amusing story written by
John McCarthy (4th Sep 1927 - 24th Oct 2011), a person who invented the term
"Artificial Intelligence". He was a professor at Stanford University.
Asimov, Isaac: "Robot Visions" and "Robot Dreams",
there are several paperback editions.
Raymond Smullyan (1919–2017) was a mathematician, logician, magician,
creator of extraordinary puzzles, philosopher, pianist.
One of his best known collections of recreational logic puzzles is
"What is the name of this book?". There are several paperback editions,
e.g., recent editions are published by Dover.
cps721 (Artificial Intelligence).